CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FORCES STUDY GUIDE

 

Three Layers of Earth

1.                           – top – made of granite and basalt

2.                           – middle – made of magna

3.                           – inner most – made of iron

 

Forces

 1.                                   --  builds up Earth’s landforms

 2.                                   -- wears away Earth’s landforms

 

Volcanoes  – occur when magma rises through Earth’s surface

           ___________  – hot molten rock under Earth’s surface

           __________    – hot molten rock that has reached the Earth’s surface

 

Four types of volcanoes

          1. 

          2.

          3.

          4.

 

 

  _________________  – earthquake and volcanic activity located around the edges of the Pacific Ocean

 

 

 ______________________  – huge plates that make up Earth’s surface

 

 

Mid-ocean ridge – underwater mountain range in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean

 

 

Fault – weak line under the Earth’s crust where Earthquakes are likely to occur

 

 

Deposition of sediments – sediments are carried to other areas and deposited

 

Erosion – when materials are carried to other locations

 

Causes of erosion

          1.               – most important cause

          2.  Wind

          3.  Glaciers

 

 

 

 ___________________ – this type of weathering breaks rocks into smaller rocks without changing the minerals       

          Examples – when plant roots break apart rock or when animals dig and burrow causing rocks to break apart

 

 __________________ – this type of weathering involves changing the chemical composition of a rock

          Example – lichens produce an acid that changes a rock

 

Gravity causes mudslides and pulls rivers and streams downhill

 

Weathering – involves disintegration and decomposition of rocks, minerals, and immature soils.